Krakatau Tur Indonesia

Ujung Kulon National Park (means : Western Tip) is located at the westernmost tip of Java, within Banten province of Indonesia. It includes the volcanic island group of Krakatoa and other islands including Panaitan, as well as smaller offshore islets such as Handeuleum and Peucang on the Sunda Strait.
The park encompasses an area of 1,206 km² (443 km² marine), most of which lies on a peninsula reaching into the Indian Ocean. The explosion of nearby Krakatau in 1883 produced a tsunami (giant wave) that eliminated the villages and crops of the coastal areas on the western peninsula, and covered the entire area in a layer of ash averaging 30 cm thick. This caused the total evacuation of the peninsula by humans, thereby allowing it to become a repository for much of Java’s flora and fauna, and most of the remaining lowland forest on the island.

It is Indonesia's first proposed national park and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1991 for containing the largest remaining lowland rainforest in Java. After the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, many settlements in the park were wiped out and never repopulated.
Ujung Kulon is the last refuge of the critically endangered Javan rhinoceros after poachers killed in 2010 the last remaining rhino in Cát Tiên National Park of Vietnam, where a small population of 10 or less remained. In Ujung Kulon the population has been estimated at 40-60 in the 1980s. Within 2001-2010 there have been 14 rhino births identified using camera and video traps. Based on recordings taken between February and October 2011, 35 rhinoceros have been identified, of which 22 were males and 13 females. Of these 7 were old, 18 adults, 5 youngsters, and 5 infant rhinos. By 2013 feeding areas of Eupatorium odoratum vegetation have been reduced from 10 locations comprising 158 hectares to just 5 locations comprising 20 hectares. Thus competition for feeding ground between the solitary Rhinoceros and Banteng also increased.
The park also protects 57 rare species of plant. The 35 species of mammal include Banteng, Silvery gibbon, Javan lutung, Crab-eating macaque, Javan leopard, Java mouse-deer and Rusa deer. There are also 72 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 240 species of birds.
The status of crocodiles within the park is largely unknown- sightings are rare, but do occasionally occur. There are reports of the false gharial within the park, but these are not confirmed. In addition, the saltwater crocodile was historically present throughout Java's coastal river systems but is currently extinct within these regions. Small, isolated populations of the saltwater crocodile are reported to exist within Ujung Kulon but confirmation is needed.
Parts of today's national park and World Heritage site have been protected since the early 20th century. Krakatoa (or rather, the three minor islets which remain of it) was declared as a Nature Reserve in 1921, followed by Pulau Panaitan and Pulau Peucang Nature Reserve in 1937, the Ujung Kulon Nature Reserve in 1958, the Gunung Honje Nature Reserve in 1967, and most recently Ujung Kulon National Park in 1992. In 2005 the park was designated as an ASEAN Heritage Park.

Mount Gede Pangrango National Park is a national park in West Java, Indonesia. The park is centred on two volcanoes-Mount Gede and Mount Pangrango-and is 150 km² in area.
It evolved from already existing conservation areas, such as Cibodas Botanical Gardens, Cimungkat Nature Reserve, Situgunung Recreational Park and Mount Gede Pangrango Nature Reserve, and has been the site of important biological and conservation research over the last century. In 1977 UNESCO declared it part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
Mount Gede (2,958 m) and Pangrango (3,019 m) are twin volcanoes. The two summits are connected by a high saddle known as Kandang Badak (2,400 m). The mountain slopes are very steep and are cut into rapidly flowing stream, which carve deep valleys and long ridges.
Lower and upper montane and subalpine forests are within the park and have been well studied. To the north of Mount Gede is a field of Javanese Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica). The park contains a large number of species known to occur only within its boundaries, however, this may be a result of the disproportionate amount of research over many years.
Gunung Gede-Pangrango is inhabited by 251 of the 450 bird species found in Java. Among these are endangered species like the Javan Hawk-eagle and the Javan Scops Owl.
Among the endangered mammal species in the Park there are several primates such as the Silvery Gibbon, Javan Surili and Javan Lutung. Other mammals include Leopard, Leopard Cat, Indian Muntjac, Java Mouse-deer, Dhole, Malayan Porcupine, Sunda Stink Badger, and Yellow-throated
Visitors usually enter the park by one of the four gates of the park: the Cibodas, Gunung Putri, and Selabintana gates, all give access to the peaks; the Situ Gunung gate gives entrance to a lake area set aside mainly for family-style recreation. Cibodas gate is the most popular entrance gate and is the site of the park's headquarters. From Jakarta, the area is two hours drive, usually via Cibodas Botanical Gardens.

Mount Halimun Salak National Park is a 400km2 conservation area in the Indonesian province of West Java on the island of Java. Established in 1992, the park comprises two mountains, Mount Salak and Mount Halimun. It is located near the better known Mount Gede Pangrango National Park, but the National Park should be accessed from Sukabumi, 2 hours drive to the administration post and then 2 hours drive (30 kilometers) again to Cikaniki post gate.
The park contains water catchment areas shielded from urban populations an agricultural areas to the north, as well as several endangered animals and rare birds.
Its mountain tops reach 1,929 metres and are often mist-shrouded, while its valleys are thought to hide much that remains to be discovered. Mount Salak is a critical water catchment area for its very high rainfall. The park is an amalgamation of two important ecosystems at Halimun and Mount Salak, which are connected by an 11-kilometer forest corridor.
The Kesepuhan traditional community is a group of around 5,300 people who live in the southern part of the park. Their main village is Ciptagelar.
The lower zones hold secure populations of the endangered West Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch moloch) - a sub-species of the Silvery Gibbon. Mount Halimun is its most secure habitat, but its range is restricted to a thin ring around the park as the species is not found above 1,200 metres. Javan Lutung (Trachypithecus auratus), and other endemic species are evident; about half its 145 known bird species are rarely seen elsewhere in Java.

Meru Betiri National Park is a national park in the province of East Java, Indonesia, extending over an area of 580 km² of which a small part is marine (8.45 km²). The beaches of the park provide nesting ground for the endangered Leatherback turtles, Hawksbill turtles, Green turtles, and Olive Ridley turtles.
Meru Betiri National Park has a varied topography reaching from a plain coast to highlands with an altitude of almost 1,200 meters. The tallest mountains within the park are Mount Gamping (538 m), Mount Butak (609 m), Mount Sukamade Atas (801 m), Mount Gendong (840 m asl), Mount Mandilis (844 m) and Mount Betiri (1,192 m). The topography along the coast is generally hilly to mountainous. There are only few sandy plain coasts, most of them located in the west, such as Rajegwesi Beach, Sukamade Beach, Permisan Beach, Meru Beach and Bandealit Beach. Some rivers across Meru Betiri NP are Sukamade River, a perennial river, Permisan River, Meru River and Sekar Pisang River that flow to the South coast.
The Meru Betiri area is influenced by monsoon wind. During November to March, the westerly wind brings rainfall to the area, whereas the dry season occurs during April to October. The average annual rainfall is between 2,300 and 4,000 mm, with 4 dry months and 7 wet months in average.

Alas Purwo National Park is situated on Blambangan Peninsula in Banyuwangi regency, at the southeastern tip of East Java province. The park is famous for its wild Banteng and surfing location at Grajakan Bay.
The park's name means first forest or ancient forest, in accordance with a Javanese legend that says the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
The park is located in Blambangan Peninsula at the southeastern tip of Java island, along the shore of strait across Bali.
With an area of 434 km², the park is made up of mangroves, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and coral-fringed beaches. An internationally renowned surf break peels along the edge of the park at Plengkung on Grajagan Bay. Mount Linggamanis (322m) is also located in this national park.
The flora protected in this national park include: Terminalia catappa, Calophyllum inophyllum, Sterculia foetida, Barringtonia asiatica and Manilkara kauki.
It is home to some of Java’s endangered species, such as the Javanese bull (Bos javanicus) or Banteng. In April 2004, there were only 57 bulls found in the savanna of Sadengan, while the population in the previous year was estimated to be 80 to 100, but in August 2010, the scientists found 73 Banteng in the 80-hectare savanna area, a big increase in 6 years, although they faced threats of poaching and lose of habitat. Groups of bulls usually come to Sadengan in the morning and afternoon in search of plants.
The biggest threat to the bull are humans. Poachers set traps outside the park during the dry season to snare bulls wandering outside the park in search of water. The bulls are slaughtered and the meat sold.
Other threatened animal species protected in Alas Purwo include the Dhole, Silvered Leaf Monkey, Green Peafowl, Red Junglefowl, Olive Ridley, Hawksbill turtle and Green turtle.
Between the months of April and September, thousands of surfers from all over the world visit the park for its surf break. The destination is Plengkung Beach on Grajakan bay, also known as G-Land, which is about half a day's travel from Bali.
The beach is considered one the best surfing spots in Asia. With rideable waves up to 5 meters, it is considered a spot for experienced surfers only. The place is listed as Quicksilver World Tour Circuit.

West Bali National Park (in Indonesian Taman Nasional Bali Barat) is located on the north western side of Bali, Indonesia. The park covers around 190 square kilometres (73 sq mi), of which are 158 square kilometres (61 sq mi) land and the remainder is sea. This is approximately 5% of Bali's total land area. To the north, it includes a 1,000-metre (3,300 ft) long beach, reef and islets. A seaport at Gilimanuk is west of the park, and the village of Goris is to the east. The National Park can be reached by roads from Gilimanuk and Singaraja, or by using ferries from Ketapang, East Java.
There are several habitats in the national park, a savanna, mangroves, montane and mixed-monsoon forests, and coral islands. The center of the park is dominated by remnants of four volcanic mountains from Pleistocene era, with Gunung Patas at 1,412 metres (4,633 ft) its highest elevation.
Some 160 species can be found inside the park, including the Banteng, Barn Swallow, Black-naped Oriole, Black Racket-tailed Treepie, Crested Serpent-eagle, Crested Treeswift, Dollarbird, Hawksbill Turtle, Indian Muntjac, Java Sparrow, Javan Lutung, Large Flying Fox, Leopard Cat, Lesser Adjutant, Long-tailed Shrike, Milky Stork, Pacific Swallow, Red-rumped Swallow, Rusa Deer, Sacred Kingfisher, Savanna Nightjar, Stork-billed Kingfisher, Water Monitor, Wild Boar, Yellow-vented Bulbul and the critically endangered Bali Myna.
In June 2011, West Bali National Park received for release 40 Bali Mynas from Surabaya Zoo and 20 from Taman Safari Indonesia.
There are several endangered flora species in this national park, such as: Pterospermum diversifolium, Antidesma bunius, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Steleochocarpus burahol, Santalum album, Aleurites moluccana, Sterculia foetida, Schleichera oleosa, Dipterocarpus hasseltii, Garcinia dulcis, Alstonia scholaris, Manilkara kauki, Dalbergia latifolia and Cassia fistula.

Way Kambas National Park is a national park covering 1,300 square kilometres in Lampung province, southern Sumatra, Indonesia.
It consists of swamp forest and lowland rain forest, mostly of secondary growth as result of extensive logging in the 1960s and 1970s. Despite decreasing populations, the park still has a few critically endangered Sumatran Tigers, Sumatran Elephants and Sumatran Rhinoceroses. It also provides excellent birdwatching, with the rare White-winged Wood Duck among the over 400 species present in the park.
Threats to the park are posed by poaching and habitat loss due to illegal logging. Conservation efforts include patrolling and the establishment of the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary and the Elephant Conservation Centre.
Plant species include Avicennia marina, Sonneratia species, Nypa fruticans, Melaleuca leucadendra, Syzygium polyanthum, Pandanus species, Schima wallichii, Shorea species, Dipterocarpus gracilis, and Gonystylus bancanus. The sandy shores of the park are dominated by Casuarina equisetifolia.
The park has 50 species of mammal many of them critically endangered. There are about 20 Sumatran Rhinoceros in the area, down from around 40 in the 1990s. The number of Sumatran Elephants in the park was estimated to 180 in 2005. The population of Sumatran tigers has declined from 36-40 in 2000 to less than 30. Other mammals in the park are the Malayan tapir, Dhole (Cuon alpinus sumatrensis) and Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus syndactylus).
About half of the bird species are inhabiting the coastal swamps, including mangroves, riverine forest, freshwater and peat swamp forest, and the marshes of the area. The park is one of the last strongholds of the White-winged Wood Duck, with a population between 24-38 birds left, the largest in Sumatra. Among the other 405 species of bird recorded in the park, are the Storm's Stork, Woolly-necked Stork, Lesser Adjutant, Crested Fireback, Great Argus and Oriental Darter.
Among the reptiles, the endangered False gharial crocodile is found in the coastal swamps.

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